A decreased NCO gene rate of conversion
You to definitely website name shines since an effective recombinational wasteland. Zero CO or gene sales enjoy are thought of within the an approximately 400 kb area surrounding both linked sex dedication genes, csd and fem (Extra file step one: Shape S14). We suggest that, as the heterozygosity of csd decides this new intercourse off honeybee [56,57] and you will diploid homozygotes was sterile people, gene sales within domain was disadvantageous. Since gene transformation was associated one another which have CO and you will NCO occurrences, all recombination might be abolished to avoid homogenization. A lack of recombination in addition to pushes both loci to behave as the one haplotype.
Our result really stands into the hitting examine to help you an early declare that discover exceedingly higher CO cost near the fresh csd locus. A prospective solution of your own contradictory claims would be the fact whilst in the fresh new instantaneous area of your genetics there is no recombination, it is counterbalanced because of the surprisingly highest rates on spans proximal for the wilderness. A lowered resolution research would position the better prices on the spans. In keeping with which i observe a leading level away from recombination within the the fresh immediate vicinity of one’s plateau (A lot more document step one: Profile S14).
Our study add to the understanding that societal hymenoptera provides both highest and you will extremely adjustable crossing-more than rates. Actually, the rate ranged between 0 and 197 cM/Mb whenever mentioned for the non-overlapping 200 kb screen across the chromosomes (Figure 3, Figure S8 during the A lot more document step one and you may hongkongcupid Dining table S6 into the Even more document 2), suggesting the new very bumpy shipping regarding crossovers in the genome. The contour out-of 37 cM/Mb, if you are higher to possess animals, is still below one to viewed for almost all fungus and you may protozoans, in which costs over 60 cM/Mb is claimed . Towards good all of our knowledge, the fresh guess suggests a top crossing-more rate than simply noticed in people bush or animal.
While our study finds evidence consistent with several theoretical predictions, cause and effect are always hard to disentangle from correlation alone. For example, in principle the diversity/crossing-over coupling is also consistent with the notion that crossing over occurs preferentially in domains of high diversity and with the notion that crossing over is mutagenic . Similarly, the correlation between recombination rate and GC content is consistent with both the possibility that crossing over forces a high GC content and with the possibility that a high GC content favors increased crossing over. The conventional wisdom holds that recombination forces heteroduplexes within which mismatches require resolution. If this resolution is biased towards G and C residues (biased gene conversion), then a correlation between GC and recombination rate is expected . Previous analyses in honey bee have demonstrated fixation biases toward GC in high recombination parts of the genome . Evidence to support this direction for the causal arrow requires SNP analysis showing a bias to AT- > GC SNPs being fixed (or otherwise favored) compared to GC- > AT SNPs at sites of recombination. The key events here are most probably crossover-associated gene conversion events, but for these we cannot determine the direction of conversion and we are likely to be missing the majority of them. In our identified NCO events, if u is the number of AT > GC SNPs per A or T and v is the number of GC > AT SNPs per G or C, then the ratio of u/v is 1.06, which is slightly greater than the null (from stochastic simulations with 10,000 repeats: P <0.08). Being on the edge of significance, we cannot robustly say that NCO is or is not associated with GC-biased gene conversion.